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Background : Coronary Artery Disease
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EUROPA Publications

EUROPA in The Lancet

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with perindopril in patients with prior myocardial infarction and/or revascularization: a subgroup analysis of the EUROPA trial.
Bertrand ME, Fox KM, Remme WJ, Ferrari R, Simoons ML.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Feb;102(2):89-96. doi: 10.1016/j.acvd.2008.10.012. Epub 2009 Jan 19

Clinical synergy of perindopril and calcium-channel blocker in the prevention of cardiac events and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Post hoc analysis of the EUROPA study.
Bertrand ME, Ferrari R, Remme WJ, Simoons ML, Deckers JW, Fox KM; EUROPA Investigators.
Am Heart J. 2010 May;159(5):795-802. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.12.042

Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study).
The Lancet, Volume 362, Issue 9386, 6 September 2003, Pages 782-788.
The EURopean trial On reduction of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease Investigators

EUROPA shows role for ACE inhibition in low-risk CHD. Int J Clin Pract. 2003 Oct;57(8):726-8.

Hughes S. EUROPA study results: perindopril benefits broad range with stable coronary disease. The British Journal of Cardiology. BJC.2003;10(5):339-341

Coletta AP, Cleland JG, Freemantle N, Loh H, Memon A, Clark AL. Related
Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology: CHARM,
BASEL, EUROPA and ESTEEM. Eur J Heart Fail. 2003 Oct;5(5):697-704.

Lip GY, Beevers DG. More evidence on blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular disease and the long-term treatment of hypertension: data from recent clinical trials (CHARM, EUROPA, ValHEFT, HOPE-TOO and SYST-EUR2). J Hum Hypertens. 2003 Nov;17(11):747-50.

Harvey D White. Should all patients with coronary disease receive angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors? Lancet. 2003 Sep 6;362(9386):755.


Verma S, Leiter LA, Lonn EM, Strauss MH. Perindopril in diabetes: perspective from the EUROPA substudy, PERSUADE. Eur Heart J. 2005 Jul;26(14):1347-9. Epub 2005 May 4.
Daly CA, Fox KM, Remme WJ, Bertrand ME, Ferrari R, Simoons ML. The effect of perindopril on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the EUROPA study: results from the PERSUADE substudy. Eur Heart J. 2005 Jul;26(14):1369-78. Epub 2005 Apr 28.

Global burden of cardiovascular disease

Murray C, Lopez A. The Global Burden of Disease, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1996.

Murray C, Lopez A. Global patterns of cause and death and burden of disease in 1990, with projections to 2020. In: Investing in Health Research and Development, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Health Research Relating to Future Intervention Options. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996.

Perindopril in stable CAD

The consistency of the treatment effect of an ACE-inhibitor based treatment regimen in patients with vascular disease or high risk of vascular disease: a combined analysis of individual data of ADVANCE, EUROPA, and PROGRESS trials.
Brugts JJ, Ninomiya T, Boersma E, Remme WJ, Bertrand M, Ferrari R, Fox K, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Simoons ML.
Eur Heart J. 2009 Jun;30(11):1385-94. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp103. Epub 2009 Apr 4

Insight into the mode of action of ACE inhibition in coronary artery disease: the ultimate 'EUROPA' story.
Ferrari R, Fox K.
Drugs. 2009;69(3):265-77. doi: 10.2165/00003495-200969030-00003. Review. 13.

Secondary prevention of coronary disease with ACE inhibition--does blood pressure reduction with perindopril explain the benefits in EUROPA?
Remme WJ, Deckers JW, Fox KM, Ferrari R, Bertrand M, Simoons ML; EUROPA Investigators.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2009 Apr;23(2):161-70. doi: 10.1007/s10557-008-6143-6. Epub 2008 Oct 18

ACE inhibition with perindopril and biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis: results from the PERTINENT study.
Ceconi C, Fox KM, Remme WJ, Simoons ML, Deckers JW, Bertrand M, Parrinello G, Kluft C, Blann A, Cokkinos D, Ferrari R.
Atherosclerosis. 2009 May;204(1):273-5. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.08.042. Epub 2008 Sep 10

ACE inhibition with perindopril and endothelial function. Results of a substudy of the EUROPA study: PERTINENT.
Ceconi C, Fox KM, Remme WJ, Simoons ML, Bertrand M, Parrinello G, Kluft C, Blann A, Cokkinos D, Ferrari R; EUROPA Investigators; PERTINENT Investigators and the Statistical Committee
Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jan 1;73(1):237-46. Epub 2006 Nov 10

EUROPA: has anything new been learned with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors?
Sica DA.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2004 Feb;6(2):91-5. Review.

FOX K. Management of coronary artery disease: implications of the EUROPA trial. Br J Cardiol. 2004;11:195-204.

BERTRAND M. Provision of cardiovascular protection by ACE inhibitors: a review of recent trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20(10):1559-1569.

Fox KM, Henderson J, Bertrand ME, Ferrari R, Remme WJ, Simoons ML, et al. The European trial on reduction of cardiac events with perindopril in stable coronary artery disease (EUROPA). Eur Heart J. 1998;19:J52-J55.

Gomma AH, Fox KM. On behalf of the EUROPA investigators. The EUROPA trial: design, baseline demography and status of the substudies. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2001;15:169-179.
Full text available in PDF

Bots ML, Remme WJ, Lüscher TF and Grobbee DE. On behalf of the EUROPA-PERFECT investigators. PERindopril-Function of the Endothelium in Coronary artery disease Trial: the PERFECT study-sub study of EUROPA: rationale and Design. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther.2002;16:227-236.
Full text available in PDF

PERTINENT-PERindopril-Thrombosis, InflammatioN, Endothelial Dysfunction and Neurohormonal Activation Trial: A Sub-Study of the EUROPA Study. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2003;17:83-91.

Gomma AH, Henderson J, Purcell H, Fox KM. The clinical application of ACE inhibitors in coronary artery disease. Br J Cardiol. 2002;9:158-162.
Full text available in PDF

Minai K, Matsumoto T, Horie H, et al. Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on coronary endothelial vasomotion and fibrinolysis. Jpn Circulation J. 2001;suppl1-A:A384.

Ghiadoni L, Magagna A, Versari D, Kardasz I, Huang Y, Taddei S and Salvetti A. Different Effect of Antihypertensive Drugs on Conduit Artery Endothelial Function. Hypertension. 2003;41:1281-1286.
Full text available in PDF

Candido R, Jandeleit-Dahm KA, Cao Z, Nesteroff SP et al. Prevention of accelerated atherosclerosis by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in diabetic apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Circulation. 2002;106:246-253.
Full text available in PDF

Perindopril in cerebrovascular disease

PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Effects of a perindopril based blood pressure lowering regimen on cardiac outcomes among patients with cerebrovascular disease. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:475-484.

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